Tobaco

Print
Category: Content Published on Wednesday, 30 July 2014
Share

The tobacco kills almost half of its consumers. More than five million cases of death are result of direct use of tobacco, while more than 600 000 are result of non smokers exposed on passive smoking. If you do not take emergency measures, the annual number of

dead can increase on more than eight million to 2030. Almost 80 % from one billion smokers live in countries with low and medium income. According to the health organization about one third from the total population over 14 years are non smokers. The men are presented by 47 % while 12 % of women.

STUDIES RELATED WITH THE USE OF THE TOBACCO IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

In 2013, in Republic of Macedonia study has been conducted for coverage of the tobacco usage among the doctors, the results show that ratio of non smokers in relation to the smokers doctors is -52,47%  smokers and 47,53% smokers. From them, men are more intensive smokers than women. Average on day men smoked 18 cigarettes, while women 11 cigarettes. Aware that smoking influences on their health, the health of their family and everyone who inhales smoke from the cigarettes, partially they want to stop with smoking. But only 16, 9 % from the doctors smokers are worried for their own health and every eleventh man is not worried at all about the own health. From the doctor smokers every second has a wish to stop smoking respectively 54,6% men and 47,5% women. No one from the doctors do not confirm that nicotine replacement with aim to lose the habit of smoking. It is surprising the fact that one that one third of the doctors smoke in presence of patience which is a negative example for the patience which gives impression that smoking is not bad for the health. About 45 % from the doctors stated that doctors  who are smokers less advice own patience to give up smoking, while almost 80 % of the doctors consider that patience easier will give up smoking if their doctor advices. Only 21 % from the doctors have negative opinion towards this question-Whether do the health workers need to advice the patience smokers to give up the cigarettes? More than 40 % of the doctors indicate that during their schooling, they did not study about the need of using educational materials for patience, with aim to help to lose the habit of smoking. Total 62% from the doctors did not hear for using antidepressant in the program for losing the habit of smoking.

RESULTS FROM THE STUDY OF THE BEHAVIOR RELATED WITH THE HEALTH OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN- HBSC

Prevalence of using tobacco between the students from 11,13,15 in Republic of Macedonia (5%,8%,30%) is lower than the international HBSC average (10%; 27%; 49%), which places Macedonia among the countries with smaller prevalence on practicing on this risk behavior, together with USA, Canada, Armenia and Iceland. In relation with the countries in the region, twice or three times is the smaller proportion of participants in Macedonia who state that once smoke cigarettes. With the age, it is increased the number of children who state that smoke tobacco, at least one cigarette, in every group of examinees. The biggest and multiple enlargements on tobacco use are noted among the age of 13 and 15, among two sexes and two ethical communities. On 15 years, the proportion of everyday smokers is 13%, and on weekly 17 %. Despite the low proportions of children-smokers on age of 11 and 13, smoking is more common among the boys, in comparison with the girls. At 15, 23 % of the boys, in average, respectively 19 % of the Macedonian girls, stated that smoke, everyday or once a week. The prevalence of the children who smoke every day or at least once in a week is respectively increased with the age. This occurrence is a result of the bodily and psychological changes of children in the adolescence, but on the weak control and influence of the parents on the children decision and behavior. The children are faced with new challenges and possibilities of social living and using the free time, as well as going out in the late night ours, parties in the discotheques, sitting in the café bars and etc. Stress connected with the school, little participation of the students, as well as difficulties for adapting on the age group which determines different expectations, push the young to experiment with the behavior risk on the health.

Geographical comparison with Europe and other countries in the word, Macedonia belongs in the group of countries with lowest prevalence (10 %) of early start with smoking, among the countries in the region, near Armenia (9%), Iceland (12%) and USA (13%) and lower than the (HBSC) average, which is 26 % for boys and 22 % for girls. (Source: Study for behavior related with the health of the children on school age HBSC: Report 2013).

HARMFUL EFFECTS OF SMOKING

Nicotine and other cancer-causing substances presented in cigarettes as petrol-additive of the petrol, formaldehyde easily combustible and carbon dioxide,-exhaust car gas, hydrogen cyanide-poisonous gas, ammonia used for cleaning toilets, arsenic-poison for mice affect the psychoactive state and together with the pitch which contains resin have negative health consequences. That consequences are lungs cancer, larynx cancer and oral cavity, heart diseases and diseases of the blood vessels and brain, chronicle non infectious diseases and many others,

Passive smoking (with inhalation of the smoke form the one who smoke) increases the risk of non smokers of lung cancer and risk of the syndrome of sudden dead of babies. During the pregnancy, the nicotine takes in the placenta, also revealed is in ammonia liquid and blood in the umbilical cord of new born babies. With the passive smoking high level of nicotine enters in the organism. The passive smokers entered 3, 6 milligrams, and active 4, 5 milligrams nicotine with one or two smoked cigarettes. Under influence of the nicotine a pleasant feeling appears, due to which among the smokers the wish for nicotine is increased. Considering that the nervous system is used to the nicotine, the smokers gradually increase the dosage of cigarettes.

Due to these facts the World day against smoking is present to remind all the active and passive smokers, if they decide to fight against this vice we will have equal unaffected and long term benefits from that.

The health benefits of giving up smoking among the active smokers:

In period of the first 20 minutes the blood pressure decreases.

In the first 12 hours, the level of carbon dioxide in the blood is normalized.

In the period of 2 to 12 weeks, the circulation is better and the function of the lungs is increased.

After 5 years, the risk of the heart attack is decreased, respectively equal to the one of the non smokers

10 years after giving up, the risk of cancer on the lungs decrease about half of the risk which brings the non smokers and risk of cancer of the mouth, larynx, esophagus, urinary bladder, uterus and pancreas is decreased.

After 15 years, the risk of coronary heart disease is equal to the one of non smokers.

Also the people from all ages who have health problems which are not connected with the smoking can have benefit from giving up from tobacco.

On 30 years the life century is extended almost 10 years

On 40 years: the life is extended for 9 years

On 50 years: benefit of 6 years extension of the life period

On 60 years: the century is extended for 3 years

The people who give up smoking after the first heart attack decrease the chances for 50 % to have second heart attack

Giving up smoking decreases the risk of many diseases related with the passive smoking among children, as diseases of the breathing organs (for example: asthma) and ear infections.

 

Other benefits are: decrease of the impotence risk, difficulties during pregnancy, decreases the risk of premature labor, babies born with small birth weight and spontaneous miscarriage. Symptoms which appear at the beginning of giving smoking are dizziness, depression, feeling of frustration, impatience and anger, sickness, irritability. There are problems with the sleep, anxiety, fatigue, distraction, increased appetite and slower heartbeat.  But people who are determined to give up smoking should not kneel to these obstacles because the health and long term financial benefits are very big.

Share
Hits: 870

PHI Center for Public Health - Tetovo
Copyright © 2012